輪圈與輪胎 - [轉貼]什麼是水飄以及如何避免水飄? - 汽車

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[轉貼]什麼是水飄以及如何避免水飄?

[轉貼翻譯] <<原文出自Continental Tire,若是Google翻譯有難理解處,請參考原文>>
什麼是水飄以及如何避免水飄
快速事實:減少水飄的機會
定期檢查所有四個輪胎的充氣壓力
將夏季輪胎的胎面深度保持在最小3毫米,冬季輪胎保持最小4毫米
如果在駕駛時下雨,請降低速度並延長與其他車輛的製動距離。
法律要求公共道路上的輪胎具有胎面花紋。胎面花紋的主要工作是排出水,這可能在潮濕條件下影響與道路的接觸面,並提供抓地力和牽引力。
當在潮濕的道路上高速行駛時,輪胎和路面之間會形成一團水。輪胎失去道路接觸,車輛不再響應轉向。這種現象稱為滑水水飄
如果在水飄過程中輪胎無法正確抓住道路,這種缺乏牽引力會對汽車安全產生巨大影響。駕駛員有效地失去對車輛的控制並且不能製動,轉向或加速。
當道路表面出現強降雨時,最有可能發生滑水水飄。當道路的停機坪不均勻時,也會發生大水窪積水。
有幾種方法可以減少您的汽車發生水飄事故的可能性:
保持汽車輪胎充氣至正確的氣壓;
監控胎面深度,使其不低於法定最小值1.6 mm;我們對您的安全性的建議是夏季輪胎應至少有3毫米和冬季輪胎最小4毫米的胎面深度
在潮濕的天氣降低速度

值得注意的是,足夠的胎面深度不僅在極端情況下至關重要。即使在低速行駛時,如果輪胎磨損,發生事故或碰撞的風險也會更高。
在3毫米輪胎胎面深度處更新
新輪胎能夠以每小時80公里的速度分散高達30升的水。但是輪胎胎面的深度在常規使用過程中會磨損。因此,隨著輪胎胎面的深度減小,輪胎分散的水顯著減少。如果汽車輪胎的胎面深度僅為1.6毫米,則排水量有效降低55%。但美國大陸航空公司的測量表明,如果輪胎的胎面深度為3毫米,輪胎仍可保持高達78%的排水能力。在此之後,滑水的風險急劇增加。

測試表明,隨著輪胎胎面深度的減少,所有型號的輪胎都失去了在潮濕路面上分散大量水的能力。在此基礎上,美國大陸航空強烈建議,當輪胎達到3毫米的限制時,駕駛員應考慮在車輪上安裝新的輪胎。
輪胎胎面深度指示器輪胎橫跨整個圓周。必須在主槽中進行胎面深度測量 - 例如使用深度計 - 在現代輪胎上具有胎面磨損指示器(TWI)。在大多數歐洲國家,汽車安全的法定最小胎面深度為1.6毫米;當輪胎到期更換時。為確保輪胎提供最佳性能,請考慮更換夏季輪胎,當它們達到3毫米深度時,以及冬季輪胎達到4毫米深度時。此外,使用相同胎面花紋設計的輪胎安裝所有四個車輪位置。至少,每個車軸應該有一對胎面深度相同的輪胎。為了更好地幫助確定剩餘的胎面深度,Continental在輪胎胎面的凹槽之間安裝了“濕指示器”。這些指示肋高3mm,位於輪胎胎面花紋塊之間。
如果周圍的胎面磨損到指示器的水平,那麼是時候用新輪胎安裝車輪作為預防性安全措施。
滑水時該怎麼辦
無論您的輪胎是新的還是舊的,駕駛員應始終在潮濕的路面上減速,以降低滑水的風險。
如果滑水應該發生 - 這仍然可能取決於駕駛員無法阻止的天氣和道路狀況 - 建議駕駛員立即將腳從油門踏板上放開,並壓下離合器。避免移動方向盤或突然制動。
但是,如果存在碰撞或嚴重事故的危險,應立即啟動緊急制動器。在大多數情況下,後輪仍然有足夠的抓地力來減慢車輛的速度。
一旦輪胎重新接觸道路並重新獲得牽引力,繼續以降低的速度行駛應該是安全的。

[原文]

What is aquaplaning and how to avoid it?



Fast facts: Reduce the chances of aquaplaning

  • Routinely check the inflation pressure on all four tires.
  • Maintain tread depth on summer tires to 3 mm minimum, and winter tires to 4 mm minimum.
  • If it's raining when driving, lower your speed and extend your braking distance from other cars.




Tires on public roads are legally required to have a tread pattern. The primary job of the tread pattern is to expel water, which can affect the contact patch with the road in wet conditions, and to provide grip and traction.
When driving on wet roads at high speed, a wedge of water can build up between the tire and the road surface. The tire loses road contact, and the vehicle is no longer responsive to steering. This phenomenon is known as aquaplaning or hydroplaning.
If tires cannot grip the road properly during aquaplaning, this lack of traction has enormous consequences for car safety. The driver effectively loses control of the vehicle and is unable to brake, steer or accelerate.
Aquaplaning or hydroplaning is most likely to occur when there is a buildup of heavy rainfall on the surface of the road. It can also happen when the tarmac of the road is so uneven as to cause large puddles of standing water to collect.

There are several ways to reduce the chances of an aquaplaning accident with your car:
  • Keep car tires inflated to the correct air pressure;
  • Monitor the tread depth, so it doesn't fall below the legal minimum of 1.6 mm; our recommendation for your safety is that summer tires should have minimum 3 and winter tires minimum 4 mm tread depth
  • Reduce speed in wet weather.


Important to note is that sufficient tread depth is vital not just in extreme situations. Even at low speeds, there is a higher risk of having an accident or collision if the tires are worn down.

Renew at 3 mm tire tread depth

New tires are capable of dispersing up to 30 liters of water a second at 80 kilometers per hour. But the depth of the tire tread wears down over the course of regular usage. Consequently, tires disperse significantly less water as the depth of the tire tread decreases.
If car tires have only a tread depth of 1.6 mm for example, then water displacement is effectively reduced by 55 percent.
But measurements made by Continental show that if tires have a tread depth of 3 mm remaining, tires can still retain up to 78 percent of their water displacement capability. After this point, the risk of hydroplaning increases dramatically.


The tests showed that as tire tread depth decreases, all models of tire lose the ability to disperse larger volumes of water on wet roads. On this basis, Continental strongly recommends that when tires reach the 3 mm limit, drivers should consider fitting new ones to the wheel.

Tire tread depth Indicators

Tires have tread across their entire circumference. Tread depth measurements must be taken -- for example using a Depth Gauge -- in the main grooves which feature Tread Wear Indicators (TWI) on modern tires.
In most European countries, the legal minimum tread depth for car safety is 1.6 mm; that's when tires are due for replacement.
To ensure that tires offer the best possible performance, consider replacing summer tires when they reach a depth of 3 mm, and winter tires when they reach a depth of 4 mm. Furthermore, fit all four wheel positions with tires of the same tread pattern design. And at a minimum, each axle should have a pair of tires with the same tread depth.
To better help determine the remaining tread depth, Continental has fitted “wet indicators” between the grooves of the tire tread. These indicator ribs stand 3mm high, located between the tire tread blocks.
If the surrounding tread has worn down to the level of the indicators, then it's time to fit the wheels with new tires as a preventative safety measure.

What to do in the event of aquaplaning

Whether your tires are new or old, drivers should always slow down on wet road surfaces to reduce the risk of aquaplaning.
If aquaplaning should occur – which is still possible depending on weather and road conditions that a driver cannot prevent – drivers are advised to immediately take their foot off the gas pedal and depress the clutch. Avoid moving the steering wheel or braking suddenly.
However, if there is a danger of a collision or severe accident, the emergency brake should be initiated at once. In most cases, the rear wheels will still have enough grip to slow the vehicle.
As soon as the tires are back in contact with the road and traction is regained, it should be safe to continue driving at reduced speed.
+5分


erichuang801 wrote:
[轉貼翻譯]什麼是...(恕刪)
天災人禍我們避免不了,但車輛主被動安全,我們可以有選擇的權力!!!
nilkkk wrote:
何為正確的胎壓⁉️...(恕刪)

每台車不都有原廠建議的胎壓值?
哪裡抄來的文章?!中文我根本看不懂!

輪胎跟路面會形成一團水?
道路有停機坪?後面看不下去了~

水漂發生的原因就是輪胎高速經過積水,
而發生打滑的現象,就像是在水面上漂。

為何會發生水漂打滑?
因為水有阻力,輪胎高速壓過積水,
這積水的張力超出輪胎/車子的重力,
輪胎就會浮在水面上,
而引擎卻持續輸出馬力,造成輪胎空轉,
而另一側沒有壓到積水的輪胎轉數也跟著提高,
車子就會偏移行進方向,造成打滑、失控。

所以在多雨的熱帶島國,
買車一定要有加速防滑系統,
至於循跡甚麼的,根本雞肋。

在山路看有多少駕駛開車過彎能不吃線就知道了,
幾乎沒有!開車都開到對向去了,
即便你有再好的配備,能預防什麼?

nilkkk wrote:
何為正確的胎壓&#8265...(恕刪)


個人的解讀是舒適、油耗跟抓地力能平衡發揮的胎壓範圍,但最終還是取決個人比較偏好哪一個項目多些。
Kang-Wei Tzou wrote:
哪裡抄來的文章?!中...(恕刪)


我覺得開車過彎會吃線是沒有信心,但又想要達到那個灣速
我對高速水漂,自己的消化解法如下:
1.降低車速:使輪胎排水槽有辦法消化掉壓過的水量
2.打高胎壓:軟輪胎高速碰撞積水,軟輪胎擠不贏積水,就被反彈;相對的打高胎壓輪胎硬,就比較能壓贏積水
3.加重車重:同上原因,也可以避免水漂發生
這文章出自於:Continental Tire。

另外有些網友提到正確的胎壓,可以分為:
1、車上的Plc Card,在門邊或加油蓋;有些寫在手冊。
2、根據(1),再考慮載重,加上天候狀況、海拔高度等去微調。
3、經驗値,有網友提到"不折胎",或者説:誏輪胎時刻保持最佳滾動阻力的胎壓。

第三點最難,但是充滿樂趣哦。既使是便宜胎,得宜的設定,也享有樂趣哦!

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