這不但是PRIUS省油密技, 個人相信, 一般的汽車車主, 可以參考部分密技, 油耗表現應該也可以提升不少喔!!
Toyota's sophisticated hybrid system allows nearly all drivers to achieve better than 40 mpg. Master the art of "gliding" and your mileage could far surpass the EPA's combined estimate of 55 mpg.
Break-in Period 馴車期
Give any hybrid a full six months and/or 10,000 miles to get broken in. The biggest impact occurs in the first 2,000 miles or so, and it may take as much as 15,000 to achieve peak mpg's. Hybrid owners commonly experience a 10-15% improvement in fuel economy after the new car smell has drifted away.
所有混合動力車需要六個月或是10000英里(16700公里)的時間去做馴車, 最大的油耗提升會發生在前2000英里(約3340公里), 大約是15000英里( 25000公里)才會達到油耗最佳點!!油電車的駕駛通常會有10%~15%的油耗提升, 尤其是在新車的味道不見了之後喔!!
Route Selection 最佳路徑的挑選
Speed is your enemy. The ideal routes have long stretches without stops, and speed limits of 30 – 35 mph. (The sweet spot for most hybrids, in "steady state" testing, is between 40 and 45 mph.) 速度是油耗的敵人, 最好的路徑往往不需要停止, 速限是在50公里~60公里的道路, ( 大部分混合動力車往往在穩定速率並保持時速65~75公里會有最好的油耗表現)
Don't be concerned about hills, especially routes with short steep uphills and long gradual downhills. The glide or coast on the way down—especially if it's uninterrupted—will more than make up for the extra energy to get to the top. And the downhill stretches will give you a chance to recharge your battery through regenerative braking.
不需要太介意上坡路段, 尤其是有連續的短暫陡峭上坡及緩降的下坡路段, 下坡路段滑行或是慣性滑行產生的電力，可以輕易用來爬上上坡路段, 下坡路段將會給你更多的機會去把電池充滿(即使是使用剎車也是可以回充電力)
Pick routes that are less windy. A hybrid's aerodynamics are streamlined for head-on gusts, but swirling and sideways winds can destroy high mpg. Tail winds are great.
選擇比較沒有風的路徑可以提高油耗表現, 混合動力車的空氣動力設計可以降低迎風面的阻力, 但是螺旋狀風向及側風會降低油耗, 順風前進可以提升油耗
Experiment with multiple routes to see which paths consistently produce the best mileage.可以嘗試不同的路徑去確認哪一條路徑可以持續有最好的油耗表現!!
When to Drive
Cold starts are mpg killers. The Prius and other hybrids get the worst mileage in the first five to ten minutes of driving.
Try to get all your errands done in one outing. If you can help it, drive after the day has warmed up. Hot humid air is the least dense, and produces the least air resistance.
可以嘗試讓所有該跑的路徑一次完成, 若可以的話, 在溫暖一點的天氣駕駛,可以得到較佳的油耗表現!! 炎熱潮濕的空氣, 反而會降低空氣阻力並有較高的油耗!!
Avoid rush-hour traffic, if at all possible. 盡量避免在塞車時間開車, 因為油耗不佳
Do your best to skip driving during rainy, slushy or snowy conditions. 盡量避免在雨天融雪或是下雪時開車, 因為油耗不佳!!
Tire pressure (i.e., rolling resistance) has a significant influence on fuel economy, and an obvious impact on safety and the quality of your ride. Do the research, and make your own decisions about how far to take the tire pressure to maximize mileage.胎壓對於提升油耗往往會有顯著影響, 而且會影響安全及行車品質!!可以嘗試並作決定要把胎壓提升到多高, 因為提升胎壓可以把油耗表現提升到最高!!
Drivers getting the highest mileage recommend using the recommended maximum tire pressure on the sidewalls—not the psi supplied by the automaker on the doorframe. 使用輪胎原廠建議的最高胎壓(在輪胎壁上), 駕駛往往可以最佳的油耗表現!!這裡指的建議胎壓不是汽車原廠建議胎壓(汽車門邊的建議胎壓)
我已經看過PRIUS原廠輪胎!!可以容許的最大壓力是51磅, 比原廠建議的磅數大很多!!我昨天已經開始做實驗把輪胎打到48/46; 會試試看結果如何!!
Maintain the maximum recommended tire pressure. Check the tire pressure regularly so the pressure does not fall below the maximum level.
維持最大建議胎壓!!經常檢查胎壓, 並保持再建議最大胎壓, 如此可以提高油耗
Low octane gasoline is best. (There is actually less energy in high-octane fuel.) 加市面上辛皖值最低的汽油可以得到最好的油耗!! 就是說可以試試92無鉛, 下次會去試試看!!
Some convenience stores may use more additives than "name brand" gas stations. 跟原廠直營加油站, 有一些加油站會使用較多添加劑!!---這一句話有一點含糊不清!!
Distance from Other Vehicles
Be aware of road conditions. The most important factor in maximizing your mpg is your ability to take your foot off the accelerator absolutely as soon as know that you'll need to slow down or stop—and getting into "glide" mode. 須特別注意路況, 提升油耗的最重要的變因是你的黃金右腳!!當你發現前面車速慢下來的時候, 你就要停止加速,並且讓車子進入慣性滑行狀態!!
To give yourself time to stop and coast, create space between you and the car in front of you—except when you have the opportunity to "draft" behind larger vehicles on the highway. You can obtain the benefits of drafting while maintaining a safe distance of 150 feet of more. 讓車子有時間去減速及慣性滑行,跟前車保持適當的車距, 若前車是大卡車可以嘗試用跟車的方式去減低風阻, 並提升油耗表現!!可以保持150呎(約45公尺)的安全距離得到減低風阻的利處!!
Starting & Warming Up
Frequent short city trips will not produce good mileage, even though the Prius is rated very high for city driving. Combine errands to reduce the number of warm-ups. 即使PRIUS被評比為市區駕駛油耗表現很好, 但是頻繁的短距離市內行駛不會有良好的油耗表現, 合併旅程可以減少的熱車的機會!!熱車時, 油耗往往表現不佳!!
There are two schools of thought about using the Prius's display to maximum effect. 有兩個方法可以使用PRIUS儀錶板去知道如何達到最佳油耗!!
Simple: Watch the instantaneous mileage numbers. Learn what produces the best results by watching the effects of your experimentations. Don't worry about the arrows that appear on the "Energy" display.
簡易版: 看即時油耗!!用實驗的方式, 一邊開車一邊看瞬間油耗, 可以知道如何駕駛可以得到最佳油耗!!不需要擔心能量的箭頭是如何跑!!
Advanced: Use the Energy display to watch the direction of the arrows. Drivers getting the best mileage are able to use split-hair changes in how they press on the accelerator and brakes to move energy from the gasoline engine to the wheels and/or the batteries—or to get all arrows to disappear completely from the screen, in what is referred to as "glide mode." (More on this below.)
進階版: 使用能量螢幕去看能量箭頭的方向!!駕駛可以得到最佳的油耗, 當他們加速時, 可以看到能量從汽油引擎傳送到輪胎跟電池, 或是讓所有的能量在螢幕消失!!當所有箭頭消失時, 就是最佳的滑行狀態!!
Learning how to get the system into these different states is only possible if you monitor the Energy display and keeping an eye on the results of your fancy footwork.
Accelerating & Cruising加速跟定速巡航
Never mash your foot to the floor. Accelerate slowly especially from a standstill. (Some Prius drivers prefer moderate acceleration before gliding with the engine off.)絕對不要急踩油門, 尤其是上坡路段建議慢慢的加速(部分PRIUS車主在汽油引擎關閉時, 偏好緩慢加速保持滑行)
If you would like to simultaneously send energy to the wheels and to the hybrid batteries—for example, when you have the headlights on at night and you have a low charge, follow these steps: 如果你想要同時傳送能量到輪胎和電池, 舉例, 當你開大燈在夜間行駛, 將會使電池充電速度減慢, 可以依照以下步驟
1. While traveling above 20 mph, slightly lift your foot off the accelerator (but not all the way).當速度高於時速33KM, 可以輕輕的放開油門(但不是一直)
2. Reapply your foot gently, until the Energy display shows the energy flow going to the wheels and the batteries. If you push the accelerator too soft, all arrows will disappear (and you will be gliding). If apply too much pressure to the accelerator, all of the gasoline will go to the wheels. 溫和的加速, 一直到螢幕顯示能量有傳送到輪胎跟電池!!如過你加速太輕, 不會有能量傳送(而是在滑行狀態), 如果加速太快, 所有的能量反而只會到輪胎, 不會幫電池充電!!
When you need to enter a highway or otherwise rapidly accelerate, simply stomp on the gas and go. The battery power will "assist" the gasoline engine, thereby reducing your fuel use as much as possible. 當你要上高速公路, 或是需要快速加速, 可以直接踩油門加速, 這時電力引擎會協助汽油引擎, 並減低汽油引擎的油耗!!
For highway driving, get best results by setting cruise control at 55 mph. For every mph over 50 mph, you lose approximately 1 mpg. Slowing down from 65 to 60 mph or from 75 to 70 mph will save you approximately 5 mpg.在高速行駛時, 最好使用定速巡航並將時速保持在55英里(約90公里), 一般來說時速超過50英里, 每提升時速一英哩, 你的油耗就會降低一英哩!! 若是你把時速從65英里降到60英里或是75英里降到70英里, 你會發現你的油耗會提升五英哩!!
Braking & Deceleration剎車跟減速技巧
In the eyes of advanced Prius drivers, the way you slow down and brake is much more important than acceleration techniques—and the goal is to "glide" (description below) at every opportunity, regardless of the traffic conditions.對PRIUS車主來說, 減速方式跟剎車技巧比加速技巧重要多了!!盡可能找機會讓車子滑行, 即使是塞車時間也可以嘗試找滑行的機會
The main idea is to control the amount of braking that is used to regenerate energy to the batteries. (Regenerative braking is essential for keeping energy in the batteries, but a little bit goes a long way. Avoiding overuse of regenerative braking will prevent you from slowing down more quickly than necessary. Extending your glides and coasts is a key to maximizing mileage.) 儘量減少使用剎車機會, 因為滑行也可以讓能源回充到電池!( 雖然剎車也可以達到充電的效果, 但是, 比較起來, 充電的效果會比滑行時所產生的電力少得多, 避免過度使用剎車, 一般來說滑行跟慣性滑行是讓PRIUS達到最高油耗的方法)
Native Alaskan people have many words for "snow," and Prius hypermilers have at least four words for how to brake. Use the least aggressive method to travel as far as possible before needing to accelerate again: PRIUS的超級里程駕駛, 有四個訣竅去控制煞車!!用最不積極的方式去駕駛, 盡可能去滑行並避免再次加速!!
Gliding (least aggressive) – While traveling, remove foot from accelerator. Then, ever so slightly, re-apply pressure until all arrows disappear from the Energy screen. You'll a feel slight surge forward.< /p> This technique will only work when the car is warmed up.滑行, 當長途旅行時, 將腳移開油門, 當所有箭頭消失在能源視窗, 再輕輕的加油門!! 這時你會感到有輕微的動力將車子推動!!這種技巧只適合車子已經完成熱車的狀態!!
You can glide at any speed, but it's difficult to get the arrows to disappear at speeds higher than 40 mph. At the higher speeds, even if you are gliding, the internal combustion engine will spin in order to protect the smaller electric motor from getting damaged. Above 40 mph, the engine is spinning but no gas is being used. Under 40 mph, the gas engine is not spinning. (Some Prius drivers report a "sweet spot" at 39 mph.) 你可以在任何速度去嘗試滑行, 但是在時速40英里以上很難讓所有箭頭消失, 在高速行駛時, 即使你是在滑行, 汽油引擎還是會發動以保護電力引擎受損!!在時速40英里以上, 即使汽油引擎空轉, 但是不會有汽油被消耗!!在時速40英里以下, 汽油引擎是不會空轉(滑行時), 所以有一些PRIUS玩家會說時速39英里是一個最省油的速度!!
Coasting (slightly more aggressive) – This kind of braking is much easier to explain. Simply remove your foot entirely from the accelerator, but do not apply it to the brake. Regenerative braking is engaged, so you will slow down more quickly than gliding. 慣性滑行, 直接將黃金右腳移開油門, 但是不要踩剎車!!煞車雖然可以充電, 但是需要注意剎車時機避免滑行追撞前車!!
Regenerative Braking (aggressive) – Press down on the brakes, but not firmly. As you press, you'll obtain more regeneration than with coasting, and the electric motors (now acting as generators) will make you slow down quickly. 踩下剎車, 但是不是深踩!!當你踩剎車, 你會回充部分能量, 而且電力引擎會讓你快速的減速
Mechanical Braking (most aggressive) – Firmly stomp on the brakes to immediately stop. You will obviously use this style of braking if a vehicle or pedestrian jumps in front of you. 機械式剎車!!瞬間深踩剎車, 當你需要時須重踩剎車, 避免追撞!!
To recap, the most important point: Anticipate the need to stop so you can slow down in a glide or in the least aggressive manner. If you do nothing else but get your foot off the accelerator more quickly, you will increase your mpg.簡而言之, 當需要停止時, 你可以用最溫柔的方式!!但是在低速需要加速, 你可以加速快一點，就可以得到較高的油耗表現
Another "magic number" is 7mph. Below 7 mph, regen stops and friction brakes are engaged—wasting energy that could be stored in the battery. Try to avoid slowing below 7 mph by decelerating earlier while approaching a red light, so that it turns green before you get there. 時速七英哩的神奇數字!!當時速在七英哩以下, 不會有任何發電的動作!!所以低速加速時, 盡量避免在七英哩以下, 可以儘快加速到七英哩以上!!
Prius hypermilers do not favor all-electric mode as the optimum strategy for maximizing mileage. They prefer to alternate between the gentlest use of gasoline (pulse) and the gliding technique described above. See Advanced Techniques below for a detailed description of the pulse and glide technique.不建議使用全電力模式(EV)來達到最高油耗!!建議使用汽油引擎跟滑行發是達到最高油耗!!
In certain situations, such as the last mile or so of your trip, the all-electric mode is more advisable. (The batteries will recharge quickly on your next start-up.)但是在某些情況建議可以使用全電力模式!!如你快要達到目的地,就可以使用全電力!!因為下次啟動時, 電池很快會充滿!!
How do you get into all-electric mode? 如何讓車進入全電力推動(不是EV)
1. While traveling, remove foot from accelerator and then, very gently, re-apply pressure to the accelerator. 行駛時, 把腳移開油門踏板, 然後用很輕的方式加油門, 如此就可以只用電力推動, 並同時維持原速行駛!!這一種方法可以提高油耗!!
2. Ever so slightly increase the touch on the accelerator (hardly moving your foot at all) until arrows on the Energy screen flow only to the battery. 用很輕的力量慢慢加速, 你就可以再螢幕視窗發現輪子只有用電力推動喔
Maintain steady speed to remain in all-electric mode.
A sustained period of all-electric driving will deplete the battery charge, which could trigger the use of gasoline to recharge the batteries. 在一段時間之後, 電池還是會電力不足, 這時電腦便會強制開汽油引擎去幫電池充電!!
Idle versus Shutdown 臨時停車 VS 熄火
If you need to remain stationary for no more than ten minutes or so—stopping to run quickly into your house or pick somebody up—place the Prius into park, but don't shut down. 如果你臨時停車的時間不超過十分鐘, 建議你直接按P停車就好, 不需要熄火!!
Turn off the heating, cooling, lights, and other electric accessories. Push the "Park" button.
The goal is to avoid shutting down and restarting, at which time the Prius will run through a startup cycle that uses gas. 這一段期間關閉暖氣, 冷氣, 大燈, 即會耗電的電子裝備, 按P就可以, 這樣的目的是要避免熄火和從新啟動, 不管何時, PRIUS在啟動的程序會消耗一些汽油, 所以短暫停車只需要按P就可以, 而不需要熄火!!
There are not a lot of gear selections to consider. (Think of your foot as the main control for maximizing mileage.) The one exception is the B gear. PRIUS沒有太多檔次可以給你選擇!!你的黃金右腳是控制油耗最好的的配備!! 但是B檔是例外!!
The B gear should be used only if you are going down a long hill. The B gear lets the engine slow down the car without overusing your brakes and over-charging the batteries. 使用B檔的唯一機會應該是在長時間的下坡路段!! B檔會啟動引擎煞車, 但是缺點是引擎煞車並不會像一般煞車可以將電力回充到電池!!所以, 一般建議盡量不要使用!!
AC and Accessories 空調系統及電子配件
It's best to avoid AC and Defrost whenever possible. Using the vent function with the temperature set to your preferred comfort level works well on long trips.盡量避免使用空調及除霧裝置!!只使用送風的功能(搭配溫度控制在適合溫度),可以提高油耗表現.
On hot days, set the AC two degrees lower than the outside temperature or to 85, whichever is lower. This setting keeps air coming into the Prius using the least amount of energy.在炎熱的天氣, 可以啟動空調, 一般建議只要比室外溫度低兩度或是華氏85度(攝氏29度)就可以!!在台灣, 這一部分應該要低一點, 因為台灣濕度比較高, 感覺會比較熱!!
Avoid using the MAX setting. 避免把冷氣開到最大
State of Charge (SOC) 電池充電的程度
Two or three bars from the top is fine. When you are missing five bars, the gas engine will kick in to recharge the battery. 差兩格到三格就充滿的狀況是最好的, 當你低於五格, 汽油引擎就會被強制啟動去幫電池充電
When you are three bars down, consider the technique of sending gas power to wheels and battery (watching arrows and wiggle foot to get it) or use a slightly more aggressive form of braking to increase the amount of regeneration. 當電池電力低於三格, 可以使用讓汽油引擎同時推動輪子跟充電的技巧, 或是輕踩剎車的技巧讓電瓶多一點機會去充電!!
It's okay to allow the charge to drain at the end of the drive, or right before an anticipated long downhill stretch. 可以在快到旅途終點或是長下坡路段之前, 讓電瓶消耗到低點, 因為下次發動跟下坡路段會再讓電瓶充電
If the SOC gets too low, you can't get into glide mode. SOC display in bars is not always entirely accurate.如果電池保持在低水準, 是沒有辦法進入滑行狀態, 充電狀態的螢幕並不會永遠完全正確的!!
Cruise Control 定速巡航控制
Cruise control, which provides smooth acceleration and allows the computer to make the fuel-saving decisions for you, is recommended in most situations. It works well on flat driving, and is excellent for non-congested highway driving.定速巡航可以提供很溫和的加速並讓電腦可以幫你節省油耗, 定速巡航被強烈建議在大部分路段使用!!尤其是在平緩的路面及不擁塞的高速公路路況
Set at 55. (Good way to discipline yourself to keep your speed down.) Lower speeds will produce even better results. 建議將速度定速在55英里(90~92公里) 這是一個好方法讓你控制速度, 不要開快車!!低一點的速度可以提高油耗!!
Cruise control is not nearly as good in hilly terrain, where uphills produce aggressive driving and too much regen braking on downhills. When you're going downhill in cruise control, you can give a little push on the accelerator, which will disengage regen and give you even more speed. Maintain safety by not allowing to much speed to build up.在爬坡路段不建議使用定速巡航, 因為上坡路段會充太多的電力, 下坡時回充太多電力是沒有必要的!!
The Pulse and Glide technique, which has allowed some drivers to achieve exceptional mileage, is ideal for roads that allow 30 – 40 mph unobstructed driving. Pulse and Glide will be more difficult in any road conditions with busy traffic or numerous traffic signals. 有節奏加油及滑行技巧, 可以讓部分駕駛達到更高的油耗表現!!但是這些技巧在塞車及紅綠燈太多的路段比較難應用!!
1. Accelerate moderately (not babying accelerator, but not gunning it) to 40 mph.適當的加速並保持時速在40英里約65公里
2. Then ease off the accelerator. Then, ever so slightly press down on the accelerator again and hold the pedal in that position. 然後放開油門, 再慢慢的加油門並固定在一個位置
3. Glide (engine on but not turning over and transmission in neutral). At this point, the energy screen should not have arrows going in any direction. This state has been referred to as "dead band." If you press too much, repeat the process of easing up and pressing down again until you find the right spot. At this point, you are coasting without any energy being used to charge the battery. 滑行, 這時候在能源螢幕不會有任何箭頭指向任何方向!!這時的狀態顯示是”DEAD BAND”如果你油門踩太深, 將油門放開再試一次!!值當你可以找到正確的位置!!這時, 你可以慣性滑行並且不消耗任何能量, 同時能量也不會回充電池
4. Coast down to 30 mph.慣性滑行到30英里約50公里
5. Gently accelerate (pulse) back to 40 mph.再慢慢加速(節奏性)到40英里65公里
6. Repeat steps, alternating between gentle accelerations to 40 mph and gliding down to 30 mph.重複這一個方式將速度加速到40英里然後滑行到30英里!!